Modulation of arousal regulation by central thalamic deep brain stimulation in non-human primates

Robust modulation of arousal regulation, performance and frontostriatal activity through central thalamic deep brain stimulation in healthy non-human primates

Jonathan L. Baker, Jae-Wook Ryou, Xuefeng F. Wei, Christopher R. Butson, Nicholas D. Schiff, and Keith P. Purpura

J. Neurophysiol. 116, 23832404 (2016)

Abstract

The central thalamus (CT) is a key component of the brain-wide network underlying arousal regulation and sensory-motor integration during wakefulness in the mammalian brain. Dysfunction of the CT, typically a result of severe brain injury (SBI), leads to long-lasting impairments in arousal regulation and subsequent deficits in cognition. Central thalamic deepin select SBI patients. However a mechanistic understanding of CT-DBS and an optimal method of implementing this promising therapy are unknown. Here we demonstrate in two healthy non-human primates (NHP), Macaca mulatta, that location specific CT-DBS improves performance in visuomotor tasks and is associated with physiological effects consistent with enhancement of endogenous arousal. Specifically, CT-DBS within the lateral wing of the central lateral nucleus and the surrounding medial dorsal thalamic tegmental tract (DTTm) produces a rapid and robust modulation of performance and arousal, as measured by neuronal activity in the frontal cortex and striatum. Notably, the most robust and reliable behavioral and physiological responses resulted when we implemented a novel method of CT44 DBS that orients and shapes the electric field within the DTTm using spatially separated DBSleads. Collectively, our results demonstrate that selective activation within the DTTm of the CT robustly regulates endogenous arousal and enhances cognitive performance in the intact NHP;these findings provide insights into the mechanism of CT-DBS and further support thedevelopment of CT-DBS as a therapy for reestablishing arousal regulation to support cognition in SBI patients.
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